Our first task is therefore to provide a clear definition of equality in the face of widespread misconceptions about its meaning as a political idea. Thus, to say e.
If men were like ants, there would be no interest in human freedom. If individual men, like ants, were uniform, interchangeable, devoid of specific personality traits of their own, then who would care whether they were free or not?
Who, indeed, would care if they lived or died?
The glory of the human race is the uniqueness of each individual, the fact that every person, though similar in many ways to others, possesses a completely individuated personality of his own. And, finally, it is the fact that these unique personalities need freedom for their full development that constitutes one of the major arguments for a free society.
Perhaps a world exists somewhere where intelligent beings are fully formed in some sort of externally determined cages, with no need for internal learning or choices by the individual beings themselves. But man is necessarily in a different situation.
Individual human beings are not born or fashioned with fully formed knowledge, values, goals, or personalities; they must each form their own values and goals, develop their personalities, and learn about themselves and the world around them.
Every man must have freedom, must have the scope to form, test, and act upon his own choices, for any sort of development of his own personality to take place. He must, in short, be free in order that he may be fully human.
In a sense, even the most frozen and totalitarian civilizations and societies have allowed at least a modicum of scope for individual choice and development. Even the most monolithic of despotisms have had to allow at least a bit of "space" for freedom of choice, if only within the interstices of societal rules.
The freer the society, of course, the less has been the interference with individual actions, and the greater the scope for the development of each individual. On the other hand, the more despotic the society, the more restrictions on the freedom of the individual, the more uniformity there will be among men and the less the diversity, and the less developed will be the unique personality of each and every man.
In a profound sense, then, a despotic society prevents its members from being fully human. Society itself must be sufficiently developed. No one, for example, can become a creative physicist on a desert island or in a primitive society.
For, as an economy grows, the range of choice open to the producer and to the consumer proceeds to multiply greatly. But there is another reason that full development of the creative powers of each individual cannot occur in a primitive or undeveloped society, and that is the necessity for a wide-ranging division of labor.
No one can fully develop his powers in any direction without engaging in specialization.
The primitive tribesman or peasant, bound to an endless round of different tasks in order to maintain himself, could have no time or resources available to pursue any particular interest to the full. He had no room to specialize, to develop whatever field he was best at or in which he was most interested.
Two hundred years ago, Adam Smith pointed out that the developing division of labor is a key to the advance of any economy above the most primitive level.
A necessary condition for any sort of developed economy, the division of labor is also requisite to the development of any sort of civilized society. The philosopher, the scientist, the builder, the merchant — none could develop these skills or functions if he had had no scope for specialization.The United States was the first country to adopt a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), and the law is actively used by journalists, civil society groups, researchers, and members of the public.
While government agencies’ performance in responding to FOIA requests has been problematic in recent years, a reform law was designed to ease.
Americans strongly value freedom, far more than do citizens of any other democratic country, he argued. There’s plenty of evidence he is right. United States (), the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in almost all cases.
The Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action.
Gender Equality in the United States - Introduction Gender equality has been a hot-button topic in the United States for quite some time. Groups have been pushing for equal opportunities for women in politics, the workplace, and essentially all facets of life.
analysis, we find evidence that increases in economic freedom are associated with lower income inequality, but the dynamic relationship between the two variables depends on the initial level of economic freedom. This suggests that there may be an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic freedom and income inequality.
1d. Democratic Values — Liberty, Equality, Justice. Liberty and equality. These words represent basic values of democratic political systems, including that of the United States.