Critical Thinking and the Liberal Arts We neglect them at our peril. By Jeffrey Scheuer Warnings about the decline of the liberal arts are ubiquitous these days, but they are hardly new. Barzun may have spoken too soon, but by various measures, liberal learning is worse off today than it was then. Liberal arts colleges seem an endangered species as curricula shift toward science, technology, engineering, and math—the STEM disciplines.
When examining the vast literature on critical thinking, various definitions of critical thinking emerge. Here are some samples: To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, 2. To recast the thinking in improved form" Center for Critical Thinking, c.
Perhaps the simplest definition is offered by Beyer Basically, Beyer sees critical thinking as using criteria to judge the quality of something, from cooking to a conclusion of a research paper.
In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something statements, news stories, arguments, research, etc.
Characteristics of Critical Thinking Wade identifies eight characteristics of critical thinking.
Critical thinking involves asking questions, defining a problem, examining evidence, analyzing assumptions and biases, avoiding emotional reasoning, avoiding oversimplification, considering other interpretations, and tolerating ambiguity. Another characteristic of critical thinking identified by many sources is metacognition.
In the book, Critical Thinking, Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking.
Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded, value fair-mindedness, respect evidence and reasoning, respect clarity and precision, look at different points of view, and will change positions when reason leads them to do so.
To think critically, must apply criteria. Need to have conditions that must be met for something to be judged as believable. Although the argument can be made that each subject area has different criteria, some standards apply to all subjects. Is a statement or proposition with supporting evidence.
Critical thinking involves identifying, evaluating, and constructing arguments. The ability to infer a conclusion from one or multiple premises. To do so requires examining logical relationships among statements or data.
In a search for understanding, critical thinkers view phenomena from many different points of view. Procedures for Applying Criteria: Other types of thinking use a general procedure. Critical thinking makes use of many procedures.The Center conducts advanced research and disseminates information on critical thinking.
Each year it sponsors an annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Educational Reform. Teaching Strategies to Help Promote Critical Thinking. The , Volume 22, issue 1, of the journal, Teaching of Psychology, is devoted to the teaching critical thinking.
The Center conducts advanced research and disseminates information on critical thinking. Each year it sponsors an annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Educational Reform. Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument. Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing.
Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the .
Orientation Lecture Series LEARNING TO LEARN: Developing critical thinking skills Learning Centre 4 Strategies for writing critical reviews. Orientation Lecture Series LEARNING TO LEARN: Developing critical thinking skills Learning Centre 3 Strategies for reading critically Ask Questions about For Example.