GnRH receptors are known to target a wide variety of signal transduction pathways. The hypothalamic decapeptide GnRH is the central regulator of the reproductive system through the stimulation of gonadotropin LH and FSH synthesis and secretion from the pituitary 9. GnRH analogs are extensively used in the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases and are the major therapeutics of prostate cancers, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis. Given the important clinical applications of GnRH analogs, and the crucial roles of GnRH in regulating reproductive axis development and function, it is of considerable interest to identify and understand the full spectrum of signal transduction pathways that are targeted by the type I GnRH receptor, both at the level of the pituitary and in normal and malignant peripheral tissues 1213
Wnts are expressed in a variety of tissues and organs and are required for many developmental processes, including segmentation in Drosophila; endoderm development in C.
The Wnt pathway is a master regulator in animal development, both during embryogenesis and in the mature organism Eastman, et al. Wnt ligands bind to Fzd, and in so doing, activate the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled DvI-I, 2 and 3 in humans and mice Boutros, et al.
This stabilization is occasioned by Dvl's association with axin Zeng et al. Rand Axin, are all negative regulators of the Wnt pathway. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that Wnt-pathway activation may be involved in melanoma, breast, liver, lung, and gastric cancers.
There is a long-recognized connection between Wnts, normal development, and cancer, a connection further established with the identification the c-Myc proto-oncogene as a target of Wnt signaling He et al. For instance, the subject method can be used in treating or preventing basal cell carcinoma or other Wnt signaling-related disorders e.
The subject methods can also be used to prevent cellular proliferation, aberrant or otherwise, by inhibiting or agonizing the inhibition of Wnt signal transduction.
Said methods can also be used for both human and animal subjects. In one embodiment, the methods of the present invention include inhibiting or agonizing the inhibition of Wnt pathway signal transduction, e.
Non-limiting examples include regulation of neural tissues, bone and cartilage formation and repair, regulation of spermatogenesis, regulation of smooth muscle, regulation of lung, liver and other organs arising from the primitive gut, regulation of hematopoietic function, regulation of skin and hair growth, etc.
The methods of the present invention can be performed in vitro or in vivo. The present discovery of inhibiting Wnt pathway signal transduction through the stabilization and raising of Axin protein levels, and through the inhibition of TNKS, is useful for identifying agents that will enhance or interfere with this stabilization, and thereby with Wnt pathway signaling, in vitro or in vivo.
The present discovery is thereby also useful for discovering agents that can inhibit TNKS catalytic activity, and can thereby be used to treat disorders associated aberrant and pathological Wnt signaling that can result from, e.
In another embodiment, the agent can be an inhibitory nucleic acid e. In another embodiment, the agent can be a fusion protein e. Said agents can be at least a small molecule, an inhibitory nucleic acid e.
Said preparation can, e. Similar to b, The corresponding reporter activity for each compound dilution point was normalized to the reporter activity in DMSO and presented as a percentage. Cytosolic lysates were then isolated and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. Identification of the cellular efficacy targets.
Tankyrase modulates Axin protein level ;  Figures 3 A, B.
Cytosolic proteins were harvested 48 hours after transfection and analyzed by the indicated antibodies. Upper panel, the expression of Axinl was analyzed by immunoblotting 48 hours post transfection. Lower panel, cells were stimulated for 6 hours with Wnt3 A conditioned media 48 hours post-transfection.
Tankyrase physically and functionally interacts with Axin  Figure 4A. Co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous Axin2 and Tnks. Left panel, schematic depicting the Axinl protein fragments used to bind Tnks in the yeast two-hybrid assay.
Note that the N88 fragment retains partial self- activation activity. Cell lysates of HEK cells transfected with the indicated constructs were imunoprecipitated with anti-Flag antibodies and analyzed by immunoblotting. SW cell lines stably expressing the indicated GFP- Axin fusion constructs were established by retroviral infection, and treated with XAV overnight.
Total cell lysates were harvested and analyzed by immunoblotting. Overexpression of the amino terminal fragment of Axinl leads to accumulation of endogenous Axinl. Axin is stabilized by XAV Axin ubiquitylation is inhibited by XAV Cell lysates were harvested with RIPA buffer, immunoprecipitated with control IgG or anti-Ubiquitin antibody, immunoblotted and analyzed with the indicated antibodies.
The position that Axinl migrates is labeled with an arrow.
Slow migrating poly- ubiquitinylated-Axinl conjugates are indicated.Tankyrase Inhibition Stabilizes Axin and Antagonizes Wnt Signalling-nature - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. the signal of wnt for developing therapeuticschwenkreis.com In certain experiments HEK cells were transfected for 24 h and then treated with ng/ml of Wnt-3a for 36 h.
Following the transfection, P-galactosidase and luciferase activity were measured using the luciferase assay system (Promega, Madison, WI) in a TD- schwenkreis.com We were provided with three cell lines but we decided to investigate the effect of both Wnt on the proliferation of one cell line, HEK cells, limiting the number of variables in the experiment.
Unlike MDA-MB and MCF7 which are breast cancer cell lines, HEK is derived from human embryonic kidney cells in tissue culture and are non-pathological.
Read "Cardamonin suppresses melanogenesis by inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your schwenkreis.com://schwenkreis.com After 24 hours, as the cultures are in log phase, an escalating amount of Wnt, namely, 0, 5, 20 and 50ng, was added for the investigation of HEK cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner.
Wnt signaling pathway from the natural compounds, we generated a dual-luciferase reporter assay and utilized for screening the inhibitors of Wnt signaling pathway.
Several inhibitory compounds were discovered and the structure-activity relationship was analyzed. Results and Discussion Generation of wnt3a Stably Expressed Cell Line HEKW.