George Orwell Politics and the English Language Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes.
Thus, many of the discoveries in the field of attention were made by philosophers.
Watson calls Juan Luis Vives the father of modern psychology because, in his book De Anima et Vita The Soul and Lifehe was the first to recognize the importance of empirical investigation. By the s, psychologists began using positron emission tomography PET and later functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to image the brain while monitoring tasks involving attention.
Because this expensive equipment was generally only available in hospitals, psychologists sought cooperation with neurologists. Psychologist Michael Posner then already renowned for his seminal work on visual selective attention and neurologist Marcus Raichle pioneered brain imaging studies of selective attention.
With the development of these technological innovations, neuroscientists became interested in this type of research that combines sophisticated experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology with these new brain imaging techniques. Although the older technique of electroencephalography EEG had long been used to study the brain activity underlying selective attention by cognitive psychophysiologiststhe ability of the newer techniques to actually measure precisely localized activity inside the brain generated renewed interest by a wider community of researchers.
Selective and visual[ edit ] See also: Selective auditory attention In cognitive psychology there are at least two models which describe how visual attention operates. These models may be considered loosely as metaphors which are used to describe internal processes and to generate hypotheses that are falsifiable.
Generally speaking, visual attention is thought to operate as a two-stage process. In the second stage, attention is concentrated to a specific area of the visual scene i. The first of these models to appear in the literature is the spotlight model.
The term "spotlight" was inspired by the work of William Jameswho described attention as having a focus, a margin, and a fringe. Surrounding the focus is the fringe of attention, which extracts information in a much more crude fashion i.
This fringe extends out to a specified area, and the cut-off is called the margin. The second model is called the zoom-lens model and was first introduced in This size-change mechanism was inspired by the zoom lens one might find on a camera, and any change in size can be described by a trade-off in the efficiency of processing.
At this phase, descriptions of the objects in a visual scene are generated into structural units; the outcome of this parallel phase is a multiple-spatial-scale structured representation.
Selective attention intervenes after this stage to select information that will be entered into visual short-term memory.
As Rastophopoulos summarizes the debate: Attention is identified as one of the three major co-active processes of the working brain.
Luria published his well-known book The Working Brain in as a concise adjunct volume to his previous book Higher Cortical Functions in Man. In this volume, Luria summarized his three-part global theory of the working brain as being composed of three constantly co-active processes which he described as the; 1 Attention system, 2 Mnestic memory system, and 3 Cortical activation system.
Multitasking and divided[ edit ] See also: Human multitasking and Distracted driving Multitasking can be defined as the attempt to perform two or more tasks simultaneously; however, research shows that when multitasking, people make more mistakes or perform their tasks more slowly.What is Bokeh?
Bokeh, also known as “Boke” is one of the most popular subjects in photography. The reason why it is so popular, is because it adds depth and dimension to a photograph, making it visually appealing and forcing us to focus our attention on a particular area of the image.
The word comes from Japanese, which literally translates as “blur”. His sustained inquiry into the paradoxical relationship of art to life and into the nature of meaning itself is brought into focus in this newly expanded collection of his most significant writings.
A new preface and two new additional essays published in the s bring this valuable collection up to date. Curiosity: Art and the Pleasures of Knowing, installation view at Turner Contemporary Photo Manu Palomeque.
Raoul Hausmann was born in Vienna (). In , at the age of fourteen, Hausmann moved with his family to Berlin. In Hausmann met Johannes Baader as well as .
Free rationalism papers, essays, and research papers.
Empiricism and Rationalism: Searching for God and Truth - We live in a time where everyone is searching for a reason to believe in something, there have posters and advertisement stating that “Only Prayer Can Save America”.
Digital art revolutionized the way art could be made, distributed, and viewed. Although some digital art leans heavily on the traditional gallery or museum venue for viewing, especially in the case of installations that require machinery and complex components, much of it can be easily transported and seen via the television, computer screen, social media, or internet.