The act of rising. A rising, soaring, or climbing. Given to severe self-denial and practicing excessive abstinence and devotion. To assign as a quality or attribute.
Music Education and Student Self-Concept: As a result of this wide-spread interest, the body of educational research literature pertaining to self-concept has grown to vast proportions.
Currently, there are over 10, scientific studies of self-esteem measured by more than different tests Adler, et al. The wealth of educational literature regarding self-concept contrasts sharply with the scarcity of research regarding music education and self-concept. The general education community's interest in self-concept should not be ignored by music educators.
Students' willingness to participate in music programs might be influenced by their self-concepts or, at minimum, by their music self-concepts. Furthermore, when music programs become threatened in times of financial hardship, research investigating the relationship between music education and self-concept may influence decisions regarding the continuation or termination of music programs.
This article summarizes an extensive review of literature pertaining to the relationship between music education and self-concept Reynolds, The literature review will be summarized by discussing representative research findings and describing the conclusions which were drawn based on the review.
The discussion will be divided into five sections: Literature selected for the review was limited to studies which specifically investigated the relationship between music education and student self-concept, or related literature which augmented these studies.
The procedure used to identify studies for review involved several steps: Additionally, in order to augment this research, general educational psychology literature regarding self-concept of ability and beliefs about the causes of success and failure was selected for inclusion.
Self-Concept Models, Definitions, and Measurement Many of the difficulties associated with self-concept research can be traced directly to the ambiguity of the term Wylie, Complications emerge from the interchangeable use of such terms as self-esteem, self- worth, self-identity, self-acceptance, self-regard, and self-evaluation.
In both casual and research contexts, self-concept and self-esteem are not differentiated very clearly.
According to Byrnethere is no "clear, concise, and universally accepted operational definition of SC [sic]" p. For purposes of this article, self- concept will be considered broadly to include the perception of oneself, including one's attitudes, knowledge, and feelings regarding abilities, appearance, and social relationships.
Most researchers reject a strictly unidimensional construct of self-concept because it does not adequately explain behavior in a wide variety of settings. They stated that " Marsh and Shavelson also conceived of self-concept as a multi-dimensional construct.
We suspect that self-concepts in specific areas will provide better prediction of most external criterion [sic] than will broad measures of general self-concept, and we contend that the relationship between self-concept and other constructs cannot be adequately understood if the multidimensionality of self-concept is ignored.
Separating self-concept into constituent parts such as these indicates that how one perceives oneself in one situation does not transfer necessarily to another. There are several theoretical models of self-concept based on the premise that self-concept is a multi-dimensional construct.
One model which has particular relevance to music educators is the compensatory model proposed by Winne and Marx The compensatory model indicates that aspects of self-concept are related inversely rather than related proportionally or independently.
Being highly competent in one area and feeling good about one's performance in that area offsets weaknesses in other areas. Winne and Marx found that students who did not excel academically tended to see themselves as more successful on the physical and social facets of self-concept.
This finding seems to suggest the possibility that if one is a good musician, this musical area of expertise might contrast with, and could possibly make up for, a lack of athletic, academic, or social prowess.
There is ample anecdotal evidence which suggests that some music teachers strongly believe that music classes give academically unsuccessful or athletically unsuccessful students a place to succeed Reynolds, Because there is no consensus regarding the definition of self-concept, measurement instruments vary widely in their conceptual organization.
In particular, there is tremendous diversity in the instruments used to measure self-concept in studies which explore the relationship between music education and self-concept.
One of the decisions investigators must make in designing measurement instruments is whether to use self-reports, behavioral measures, or some combination of both. Discrepancies between self-reports and observer reports challenge the popular notion that evaluations of self are merely the product of how others see us.
Shrauger and Schoeneman reviewed studies investigating the relationship between self-reports and the judgment of others, and concluded that "there is no consistent agreement between people's self-perceptions and how they are actually viewed by others" p. In order to investigate the relationship between music education and self-concept, music educators often select major self-reporting instruments such as the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Coopersmith,the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale Fitts,or the Piers-Harris Children' Self-Concept Scale, Piers, as well as observation and case study approaches.
While the Tennessee Self-Concept scale and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory have been used widely by music educators, these general instruments do not include sections that measure music self- concept.
There are, however, a limited number of instruments which have been designed to test music self- concept. The SCIM Svengalis, includes 36 items, to which a subject is asked to respond either "yes" or "no".
Fifteen of the 36 items are concerned with singing. In general, the statements pertain specifically to music ability as opposed to feelings of general self-worth. The items relate to self-confidence, musical skills and abilities, and feelings of acceptance and reinforcement from parents, teachers, and friends.Page 1 of 44 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction The review of the literature for this study focuses on education and its role in shaping the future of students in K to 12 Curriculum in response to global competitiveness particularly in ASEAN Economic Community by STUDENT SATISFACTION 1 Examining Student Satisfaction with Higher Education Services Using a New Measurement Tool Thorsten Gruber The University of Manchester.
A Comprehensive Literature Review & Bibliography. Does dual enrollment have an effect on participants’ satisfaction with their high school experience? Dual Enrollment Literature Review Administered by the College Board, AP allows high school students to take college‐level.
Student satisfaction is a major challenge for higher education institutions and as Arambewela and Hall () posit, it is also the major source of competitive advantage and the student. Research on the Impact of School Facilities on Students and Teachers conditions and student achievement at the middle school level in the commonwealth of Virginia.
(Ed.D, Virginia Polytechnic Institute This summary of studies is part of a larger literature review. Abstract.
This study investigates how relevant indicators of teachers’ sense of their professional identity (job satisfaction, occupational commitment, self-efficacy and change in level of motivation) are related.