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Culture out of Africa next chapter The Contradictory Diversity of Anthropoid Societies Evolutionary equilibrium means that a strategy has to be optimal to any changes either sex might inflict, or any defection from the game theoretic equilibrium the situation might present.
In the context of sex this means that societies need to reflect the complementary interplay between the vastly differing reproductive investments females and males make, the one massive and forthright, and the other opportunistic and competitive.
Diverse ape societies derive their complexity and viability through responding to this sexual interplay, without the extensive capacity humans have for imposing 'artificial' cultural structures upon it. The relative clumping or diffuse nature of plant foods, determine, through the female foraging distribution, and the opportunities it provides males, whether ape species are monogamous very dispersed femalesform harems clumping sufficient for one male to guard several females - e.
Pan troglodite, and the bonobo or pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus. In turn these reproductive patterns determine the shifting hierarchies and coalitions of social structure.
The most promiscuous ape societies are the most complex and versatile. Monogamous gibbons lead a solitary and relatively sterile existence in widely spaced territories with little social interaction.
For Gorillas there is a little more dynamic movement. Largely affairs are dominated by a silver back who retains dominance over his harem while struggling endlessly against being toppled and his females robbed by a more powerful male.
But females will also mate with a younger male if he is present in the group. However only in chimp and bonobo societies do social complexities and subtleties really come to the fore. Right High resolution evolutionary tree of great apes Kronenberg et al doi: While a traditional DNA-based tree places primates and humans much closer to rodents, as highly evolved branches, with the elephants diverging earliest, an miRNA analysis places rodents as branching out earliest, something which might seem to be consistent with their possibly closer correspondence to the founding shrew-like mammalian type.
The critical question determining the fate of the miRNA perspective is what the rate of loss of these small RNA molecules is in evolution. A higher rate of loss would tend to remove the inconsistency. While the picture is consistent with retaining miRNAs in mammalian diversification, in insects and a primitive chordate sudden losses have occurred.
Kronenberg et al doi: This work marks a new stage in our ability to study and compare these species. Structural variation in the genome is important, particularly on the short evolutionary timescale that separates humans and other great apes, because it provides a way for genomes to evolve rapidly.
When a whole chunk of DNA is removed or duplicated, its molecular function can be inhibited or enhanced in one step, rather than through successive mutations at individual bases.
Much of the great-ape genome seems to be modular in nature, and is therefore susceptible to these kinds of changes. It has also been discovered that gene loss is a key mechanism for evolutionary change Sharma et al. This might seem counterintuitive, but genes often act to constrain, rather than promote, a particular function.
Disabling them by removing, duplicating or relocating a chunk of DNA might be the simplest way to confer beneficial effects. The authors found aboutstructural differences between these genomes and that of humans, including more than 17, differences specific to humans.
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Of these, many changes disrupt genes in humans that are not disrupted in other apes. Genes whose activity is suppressed specifically in humans are more likely than other genes to be associated with a human-specific structural variant.
Many genes produce multiple versions, called isoforms, of the protein they encode, each of which can have a different role. The researchers found evidence that a large deletion in the gene FADS2 involved in the synthesis of fatty acids needed for brain development and immune response might have altered the distribution of isoforms the gene produces.
These are difficult to obtain from a purely herbivorous diet and FADS2 has been a target for natural selection associated with dietary changes towards or away from animal fats in recent human evolution. Structural variation also seems to have had a role in brain evolution.
Human brains are much larger than those of other apes, and it is plausible that genes involved in brain growth and development were key to the evolution of this trait. Male gorillas have greater reproductive success if they spend more time taking care of kids Chimpanzee Chimps have a narrow muscular penis inviting intentional displays rather than the fat hydrodynamic penis of the human.
Females have a large sexual swelling in estrus, usually mate from behind and females grunt at climax in a way suggestive of 'orgasm' Pusey R Chimp societies are complex, dynamically changing 'fission-fusion' societies with shifting sexual relationships between females and males, however here the emphasis is on male hierarchies and coalitions.I.
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