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Historically, there are three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: A psychological B sociological C biological All infer different methods of control, but it is difficult to completely separate the three categories as it is generally accepted that all three of the factors play a role in the expression of behavior.
Moreover, psychological science consists of several disciplines including biological psychology and social psychology, so psychological principles could be applied across all three domains. However, there are some general principles associated with each of these paradigms that would be associated with some specific crime control policies.
This results in admittedly narrow definition for each of the categories, but it does simplify the discussion herein. Psychological Approaches There a many different psychological models of criminal behavior ranging from Three major theories of white collar crime Freudian notions to later cognitive and social psychological models.
I cannot review them all here. Instead, I will list the several fundamental assumptions of psychological theories of criminality and human behavior in general. The individual is the primary unit of analysis in psychological theories.
Personality is the major motivational element that drives behavior within individuals. Normality is generally defined by social consensus.
Crimes then would result from abnormal, dysfunctional, or inappropriate mental processes within the personality of the individual. Criminal behavior may be purposeful for the individual insofar as it addresses certain felt needs. Defective, or abnormal, mental processes may have a variety of causes, i.
The last assumption of the psychological model would suggest that a variety of different causes or reasons exist for criminal behavior and that general principles targeted at the individual would be effective for crime control.
However, the model also assumes that there is a subset of a psychological criminal type, defined currently as antisocial personality disorder in the DSM-IV and previously defined as the sociopath or psychopath APA, This type of criminal exhibits deviant behavior early in life and is associated with self-centeredness, a lack of empathy, and a tendency to see others as tools for their ends.
Controls for these individuals would be more extreme and general public policies may not be stringent enough to curb the behavior in this small subset of criminals. Given these six principles to establish psychological explanations of criminal behavior, we can suggest first that traditional imprisonment, fines, and other court sanctions are based on operant learning models of behavior for crime control.
Operant learning models are based on the utilitarian concepts that all people wish to maximize pleasure and minimize pain or discomfort.
Skinnerian based social psychological theories of reinforcement and punishment are influential in this model of criminal control although the idea of punishment for crime has a much longer history Jeffery, Technically speaking, punishments are any sanctions designed to decrease a specific behavior; thus, fines, jail sentences, etc.
However, Skinner himself recognized that punishment was generally ineffective in behavior modification and that reinforcement worked better e. A caveat should be applied here: Punishment is effective if applied properly, but unfortunately it rarely is applied properly. Punishment needs to be immediate or as close to the time the offense as possibleinescapable, and sufficiently unpleasant in fact, the more it is subjectively perceived as harsh, the better.
Given the judicial system in the U. Nonetheless, punishments and sanctions for criminal behavior are based on behavioral psychological principles.
Because harsh forms of punishment do not appear to significantly decrease recidivism rates, other psychological principles have been applied. In terms of cognitive behavioral psychological principles, rehabilitation and relearning, retraining, or educational programs for offenders are forms of psychologically based methods to control crime.
These methods are based on the cognitive behavioral methods of teaching an alternative functional response in place of a formally dysfunctional one as opposed to simple punishment. These programs can take place in prisons or outside of the prison and have long been demonstrated to be successful e.
So any form of retraining, reeducation, or reentry guidance is based on psychological principles of criminality and reform. However, rehabilitation programs are often rarely implemented in jail or prison.
Many of these programs appear to be especially beneficial for drug and alcohol offenders. Likewise, any form education such as the DARE program and recent efforts to curb bullying in schools are based on these methods.
In line with this, changing the environment of the offender such as providing more opportunities would be a psychological behavioral principle designed to cut crime.
In line with other psychological methods are policies aimed at maintaining a visible presence of law enforcement and methods to maintain self-awareness in tempting situations. Such methods are preventative.MAKING SENSE OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME sources of crime data (including official data, offender self-reports, and victimization reports) are limited in scope, not collected in a systematic manner, or have unique problems that discourage operationalization and generalization.
An Introduction To White Collar Crimes Criminology Essay.
Print Reference this. White-collar crime was defined by Edwin Sutherland as a “crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.” Since this term was coined by Sutherland in during his speech for American Sociological.
Whether these strains result in white-collar crime, however, is said to be influenced by such things as coping skills and resources, social support, opportunities for white-collar crime, social control, the perceived costs and benefits of white-collar crime, and association with criminal others.
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Volume 55 Issue 2June Article 3 Summer The Study of White Collar Crime: Toward A Reorientation in Theroy and Research. White-collar crime is markedly different both legally and sociologically from more conventional crime, and the controversy over its criminological appropriateness centers around three major issues.
theory to white-collar crime offenders has not received a great deal of attention. Research that has been conducted in the realm of white-collar crime has yielded mixed support for low self-control in explaining such offenses (Simpson and.