Link to PDF version of this advice What follows is a collection of advice for writing research grants to the National Science Foundation.
Apollo 1 As with submarines before them, space capsules are closed environments, subject to strict contamination requirements.
Incoming material is screened for mission threats. Any shedding, including wood, graphite, and ink vapors and droplets, may become a risk. In the case of a manned capsule, the much smaller recirculating volume, combined with microgravity and an even greater difficulty of resupply, make these requirements even more critical.
Release of wood shavings, graphite dust, broken graphite tips, and ink compounds are a dangerous flight hazard. Lack of gravity makes objects drift, even with air filtration.
Any conductive material is a threat to electronics, including the electromechanical switches in use during early manned space programs. Nonconductive particles may also hamper switch contacts, such as normally-open and rotary mechanisms.
Drifting particles are a threat to the eyes and to a lesser extent an inhalation threatwhich may risk execution of a critical procedure.
Personnel may don protective gear, but both ground and flight crews are more comfortable and more productive " in shirtsleeves ".
Fisher of Fisher Pen Company recounts that pencils were 'too dangerous to use in space'. A directive was issued but poorly enforced. When combined with high oxygen contentthe Apollo 1 cabin burned within seconds, killing all three crew members.
Cosmonaut Anatoly Solovyev flew with Space Pens starting in the '80s and states "pencil lead breaks Life-critical system and System engineering Strict documentation requirements accompany anything as complex as a large-scale aerospace demonstration, let alone a manned spaceflight.
Quality assurance records document individual parts, and instances of procedures, for deviances. Low production and flight rates generally result in high variance; most spacecraft designs to say nothing of individual spacecraft fly so infrequently that they are considered experimental aircraft.
When combined with the stringent weight drivers of orbital and deep-space flight, the quality-control demands are high. Change control records track the evolution of hardware and procedures from their ground testing, initial flightsthrough necessary corrections and midlife revision and upgrades, and on to retention of engineering knowledge for later programs, and any incident investigations.
When the flight also has scientific or engineering science objectives, low-quality data may affect mission success directly. Faced with these requirements, pencils or other non-permanent recordkeeping methods are unsatisfactory.
The act of taking permanent, high-integrity documentation itself deters kludgesworkaroundsand " go fever ". The Apollo 1 investigation uncovered procedural and workmanship deficiencies in multiple areas, up to procedures on the pad.
Pressure and temperature[ edit ] At sea level, temperature is moderated by the thick atmosphere. As air pressure falls, temperatures can swing more dramatically. Many early manned missions operated at below standard pressure, to decrease the stresses and thus, mass of their capsules.For high school and college students, writing for an internship resume can be tough.
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Advice on Writing Proposals to the National Science Foundation. Susan Finger sfinger at schwenkreis.com Carnegie Mellon University. Updated April The original . Evaluation Briefs. Writing. SMART Objectives. This brief is about writing SMART objectives.
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